The paper "Assessment of Energetic, Economic and Environmental Performance of Ground-Coupled Heat Pumps" has been published by our partner POLITO, and it is available for free here

Rivoire et alii's work shows how the economic return of shallow geothermal system is still difficult, but they can already be competitive in a number of contexts: cold climates or balanced heating/cooling needs, large buildings, replacement of oil and LPG boilers. Geothermal heat pumps are low-carbon, and the avoided emissions are going to increase as Europe is switching from coal to gas and renewables to produce electricity.